Annotated Bibliography

For final paper, by Zach Tomaszewski

for ENG 760J, Fall 2005, taught by Dr. Glenn Man

Memento. Dir. Christopher Nolan. Newmarket/Summit Entertainment, 2001. (Columbia-Tristar DVD, 2001.)

The film I'm analyzing. The DVD also includes an interview with Chris Nolan, a copy of the short story, and a version of the Otnemem website.

"Otnemem." <> Last accessed: 02 Dec 2005

The official Memento website, pre-dating the movie's release. It is designed as a collection of newspaper clippings, torn psychiatric and police reports, Polaroids and sounds from the film, and long notes from Leonard to himself. Slight technical differences exist between this version and the version on the DVD--such as on the website, you are somewhat limited in the order you reveal links to further information. Interesting because it is designed by Jonathan Nolan and thematically ties the short story and film together.

Desmond, John M., and Peter Hawkes. Adaptation: Studying Film and Literature. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2006.

Contains a copy of Jonathan Nolan's short story, inspiration for the film. Desmond and Hawkes argue that the adaptation of the story to film was a "point of departure" adaptation. Other parts of the book explore the necessary changes and nature of adapting a written work to film.

Stam, Robert. "Beyond Fidelity: The Dialogics of Adaptation." Film Adaptation. Ed. James Naremore. Rutgers UP, 2000.

Argues against viewing adaptation primarily in terms of fidelity to the original (written) work. Instead, suggests using other frameworks such as translation, transformation, interpretation, or intertextual dialog.

Leitch, Thomas. "Twelve Fallacies in Contemporary Adaptation Theory." Criticism 45:2 (Spring 2003): p149-71.

Leitch examines a number of common assumptions and fallacies regarding adaptations from novels to film. Some examples "fallacies" are that a contemporary theory of adaptation exists, that novels create more complex characters than film, that fidelity is the most important criterion for judging adaptations, and that adaptations are adapting only one text at a time.

Klein, Andy. "Everything you wanted to know about 'Memento'". Arts & Entertainment. 28 June 2001. <>

Examines how Memento treats memory as a source of identity and morality, yet at the time raises questions for all of us concerning its reliability. Also raises the question of Leonard as a reliable source of information--we can not always discern when his "flashbacks" are factual memories, fantasies, false memories, or projections.

Duncker, Johannes. " - Memento." <> Last updated: 11/09/2004.

This page, and its subpages, examines a number of minute inconsistencies in Memento, many apparently intentional (subliminally asking us to question our perception and memory). For instance, it traces the subtle change of Teddy's license plate number from "SG13 UI7" to "SG13U17" (where the second-to-last digit changes form the letter I to a number 1), and how his driver's license expiration date is 02-29-01 (when 2001 is not a leap year). It also documents how Leonard appears for a fraction of a second in the mental institution in place of Sammy Jankins. Other details that may simple errors included handwriting and photo inconsistencies.

Telotte, J. P. Voices in the Dark: The Narrative Patterns of Film Noir. Urbana and Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

Examines the style of film noir narratives, including narration and thematic elements. In terms of narration, explores such staples as the subjective camera and voice-over/flashback.

Spicer, Andrew. Film Noir. Harlow, England: Longman, 2002.

Another basic film noir text, this too examines elements of film noir style, themes, and narrative strategies, as well as some basic historical background information. Also contains chapters on modernist and postmodern film noir.