Journal and Website Reading Log

by Zach Tomaszewski

for LIS 650, Fall 2000, taught by Dr. Darlene Weingand

Week 2: Qualities of Organizational Culture and Structure

Journal Articles

McDaniel, Michael A. "In what jobs do less intelligent people perform better than more intelligent people?" The Industrial- Organizational Psychologist. (Nov 1988): 31-35.

Discusses two main points: that past behavior is the best indication of a person's future behavior and that, on average, intelligent people have better job performance than less intelligent. The author calsl for proof to the contrary.

Summers, Lynn, and Dave Neumann. "Understanding Managment Development... and doing it." The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist. (Nov 1984): 19-28.

Results of a survey of psychologists and resource managers of large companies on the possibility of change in adults and how, as a manager, to go about best fostering that change. Most of those surveyed agreed, to varying extent, that change in adults was possible, and suggested such things as training in the actual work enviornment and starting a corporate change with managers first as some ways to foster corporate change.

Ledford, Gerald E., and Jon R. Wendenhof, and James T. Strahley. "Realizing a corporate philosophy." Organizational Dynamics. (Winter 1995): 5-19.

Discusses factors in making a corporate philosophy effective and motivational. It must have a positive rather than neutral or negative effect on employees and must be enacted through the companies actions. Some companies have used corporate philosophies quite successfully.


"Organizational Structure." <> Accessed: 27 Aug 2000.

Table of the organizational structure of the A. Pushkin Central Children's library in St. Petersburg, Russia.

"GIL Organizational Structure." <> Accessed: 27 Aug 2000.

Discusses postions and duties of various members of commitees in the GALILEO Interconnected Libraries Organization in Georgia, USA.

"Organizational Structure." <> Accessed: 27 Aug 2000.

Lays out the structure of the Sheriff's Office of El Paso Country, Colorado, including who is responsible for the law library.

Week 3: Planning and Evaluation with a Customer Focus


Huley, Robert F. and Jakka M. Laitamaki. "Total Quality Research: Integrating Markets and the Organization." California Management Review. (Fall 1995): 59-78.

Discusses how to implement Total Quality Research in the context of Total Quality Management. Outlines the design of TQR, from identifying markets and specific dimensions in those markets, to determining how one's organization currently meets those dimension needs and how to better fill them in the future.

Ashkenas, Ron. "Creating the boundaryless organization." Business Horizons. (Sept/Oct 1999): 5-10.

Concerns the change from traditional top-down decision-making corporations to the new, fluid, "membranous" organization that allows for faster response and change. These new organizations encourage more information exchange, give more authority to the people lower in the hierarchy, and reward growth and performance in employees in their current positions rather than promoting them out of their area of expertise.

Haspeslagh, Philippe C. and David B. Jemison. "The challenge of renewal through acquisitions." Planning Review. (Mar/Apr 1991): 27-32.

Discusses how to include acquisitions, whether materials, people, or other companies, into an overall strategy. Notes the importance of completing the integration even after the acquisition has been secured.


"[No title]" <> Accessed 05 Sep 2000.

The report of the University of Maryland Libraries Strategic Planning Task Force from March 1999.

"HRLC Planning Committee Strategic Plan (Final)" <> Accessed 05 Sep 2000.

A detailed report on the planning process undertaken and the resulting goals and objectives of the Highlands Regional Library Cooperative in New Jersey.

"MORE-Library Planning" <> Accessed 05 Sep 2000.

Index page for the Marquette University libraries' planning documents, including goals and focus group reports. MU is located in Wisconsin.

Week 4: The Library/Information Agency's Customers


Bryant, David. "Library Guides: Supporting Customer Service in Information Delivery at the New Canaan Library." Library Administration and Management. (1996): 110-114.

Describes the implementation of trained voluteers at the New Canaan Public library to answer simple questions in order to reduce waiting times and free up the professional reference librarians. Though there was some trepidation from the professionals about having parts of their job fulfilled by non-librarians, the results have been very good for customer service.

Goleski, Elaine. "Learning to say 'Yes': A customer service program for library staff." Library Administration and Management. (1995): 211-215.

Discusses the need for library staff to avoid immediately saying "no" to requests, both to customers and to coworkers. Instead, try to respond with further questions to be sure you understand the request, or else answer "yes" with the appropriate qualifiers. Most important, find out what the customer or coworker wants and avoid trying to prove you are more right or reasonable.

Skinner, Ellen, and Kathleen Edge. "Reflections on coping and development across the lifespan." International Journal of Behavioral Development. (1998): 357-366.

Discusses how the ability to cope with stress and change affects a person's development. Past coping and development affects future development. Much to do with coping comes from social surroundings (such as clues from others as to whether something is just challengeing or actually threating), and so attempts to change a person's coping strategies necessarily involve that person's self and world views.


Hawkins, Lynette. "Seniors want great service too." <>Accessed: 10 Sept 2000.

Explores different ways to improve service for older customers. Suggestions include using the proper terms of respect, having available seating, making things large and easy to see, etc.

Kaufman, Ron. "When service goes wrong.. bounce back!" <> Accessed: 10 Sept 2000.

Details how to respond to complaints and poor service. Uses the acronym SERVICE to help keep the points in mind.

More customer service articles like the above two can be found at <>

Brown, Paul B. "Real cost of customer service." < incmagazine/article/0,,ART5327,00.html> Accessed: 10 Sept 2000.

Explores the techniques used by the owner of Direct Tire, a tire sales and maintenance store, to improve cusomter service. Such things include a flexible schedule for customers, supplying loaner cars for use while tires are being changed, very talented and reliable workforce, very nice waiting room, etc. Interesting to note is that Direct Tire's prices are 10 to 15% higher than the competition's, but people are very willing to pay it for the great service. In fact, Direct Tire's profit margin is above average, even though they avoid cutting costs.

Week 5: Marketing


Weinberg, Neil. "Net losses: how marketing on the internet may not work for some companies." Forum. (Jan 10, 2000): 176.

Explains the difficulties many companies experience attempting to do business on the internet: getting traffic, expensive technology, and poor web designers. Notices that sometimes a web presense is not worth the expense; other marketing avenues may be more lucrative.

Nelson, Kristi. "Marketing meets automation to increase sales." Business Marketing. (Sept 98): 47-48.

A rather vague article on web marketing. It never does explain was ROI is.

Frank, Diane. "The new ROI in point of sale." Datamation. (Nov 97): 73-74.

Discusses new methods of cross-marketing, such as McDonald's operating outlets within Walmart stores. McDonald's is now even using Walmart staff by allowing people to place orders as they check out of Walmart and then pick up their food on the way out. Online, cross-marketing techniques includes promoting related products (sometimes even from other companies) as a purchase is being made.


"Internet marketing ideas for public libraries." <> Accessed: 19 Sept 2000.

A great list of ideas on how to market a public library to users, both on and off the Internet.

"LIS 405 Library Administration." <> Accessed: 19 Sept 2000.

Notes on library marketing from a class taught at the University of Illinois. Includes public, academic, and school library strategies, as well as some general discussion.

"Internet marketing library." <> Accessed: 19 Sept 2000

An article on submitting effectively to Free-for-all link pages. The site also includes many other pages on internet marketing and website promotion.

Week 6: Organizing and Evaluating Library/Information Agency Operations


Kealer, Lisa. "There's no place like Plano (Texas)." Workforce. (Sept 1997): 104-110.

Describes how the city of Plano, near Dallas, improved services through the use of employee work teams and various information gathering techniques. Focuses a lot on the improvements, such as a better waste removal service schedule and a self-check-out option at the public library.

Ellis, Martin. "Benchmarking public libraries: comparisons in context." Australasian Public Libraries and Information Systems. (June 1998): 56.

Results of an Australian operation benchmark studies. Threw around lots of terms like "overhead," "data," "estimate," "inclusion," "benchmarking," "utilize," and "services" and was general pretty dry and boring. Did have a neat note on libraries' two strengths -- being very open with their information, and their strong sense of community and cooperation -- and predicts that these will be the differentiating factors between libraries and any of the newer information services.

Saxton, Matthew L. "Reference service evaluation and meta-analysis: findings and methodological issues." Library Quarterly. (July 1997): 267-89.

Discussed how to analyze and use data from existing studies and surveys; mentions things to be wary of, such as different variables and controls between similar studies.


Piot, Laurel Irving. "Volunteer Training and Development: A needs assessment." <> Accessed: 26 Sept 2000.

An in-depth study of certain Canadian non-profit organizations in order to analyze the current quality of volunteer training and ways to improve it.

"The 1997 National Survey of US Public Libraries and the Internet: Final Report." <> Accessed: 26 Sept 2000.

A report, conducted primarily through surveys, on the quality of library internet access. I was surprised at how high access is: 21% of libraries had access in 1994, and it was up to 72%. Of course you learn in the fine print that this is library systems, not library branches.

"Organizational Systems Checklist for Nonprofit Organizations" <> Accessed: 26 Sept 2000.

A long checklist of all the things to check at each year end audit/evaluation. Just looking at it makes me feel overwhelmed. Also has links to other library management related topics.

Week 7: Budgeting and the Political Process


Rabenaldt, Carl. "Making your case: needs assessment aid budget process." American School & University. (July 2000): 20.

Discusses budgeting for facilities, how to measure current conditions, how to estimate future cost (despite its fluctuations), and how to use this knowledge to argue for more money.

"President signs budget with nonspecified cuts." American Libraries. (Jan 2000): 20.

A brief article on a bill just passed that increases federal spending on education and healthcare, but calls for a 0.38% cut elsewhere, which sounds incredibly small, but is apparently still cause for library concern. Agencies must submit their cuts to the Office of Management and Budget before next year's budget.

Jehle, Kathryn. "Budgeting as competitive advantage." Strategic Finance. (Oct 1999): 54.

Claims that one must integrate the budget with the strategic plan, and that both must be very fluid and dynamic. Changing conditions in fast-paced enviornments should be handled even between budgeting cycles. Mentions that many of the latest technologies can aid in this flexibility.

Serven, Lawrence B. MacGregor. "The planning peril." Journal of Accountancy. (April 2000): 61.

Elaborates on how revamping the budget system, due to the exposure and expectations involved, can lead to damage of the revamper's professional life. Mentions that relying on technology to solve your problems invites disaster since any software is written with certain assumption and contexts built in and there is an expensive learning curve with any new product. Protect yourself by getting good data from many viewpoints and defining what the standard of success will be for the redesign. This is a nice foil to the previous article.


"FY 2000 Executive Budget - Library of Michigan" <> Accessed: 3 Oct. 2000.

Basic budget of the Library of Michigan, including some description of what will be done with the $$$.

"Office of the State Budget Director" <> Accessed: 3 Oct. 2000.

All you ever wanted to know about the budget of the state of Michigan, where the money comes from and where it goes. And more!

"Office of Management and Budget" <> Accessed: 3 Oct. 2000.

The people that work on the budget of the USA, which is available here for download at 1.8 meg in PDF format. Wow, no wonder they have a tough time balancing it. Also lots of commentary, etc.

Week 8: Communicating with Constituents


Ball, Peter. "Employees hold key to thwarting the competition." Marketing. (24 Aug 2000): 22.

Emphasizes that employee involvement and loyalty can improve or impact your business as much as customer loyalty.

Karathauos, Patricia, and Anthony Aurienimo. "Care and feeding of the organizational grapevine." Industrial Management. (Mar/Apr 1999): 26.

Explains the source of the term "grapevine" (comes from the Civil War when military telegraph lines ran from tree to tree and most messages sent along them were grabled and inaccurate). Notices that grapevines are an integral part of the workplace and that managers should not battle to remove them. Instead, they can be a good source of info (research shows them to have 75 to 90% accuracy) that is personal, informal, can't be found elsewhere, and generally travels faster than formal channels.

Callagham, Dennis. "Getting more out of buyers: analytical tool opening fresh channels to new and old customers." eWeek. (11 Sept 2000): 39.

Discusses the Angara Review software that gathers web customer information, enabling real-time personalization and presentation. It runs $5,000/month, but I suppose it's a way of communicating with customers without taking any of their time, and also without really having their permission.


"Customer management" <> Accessed: 10 Oct 2000.

An article of sorts that discusses how marketing has changed due to the increase in technology. Companies can now get too much information about customers. With the appropriate software, a company can use details about their customers to personalize and sell to individuals with little actual contact.

"Xchange - News - Press Releases: Exchange Applications acquires e-marketing software firm ... " <> Accessed: 10 Oct 2000.

Discussion of another e-marketing personalization company, Exchange Applications, Inc. and a rather vague discussion of some of their plans.

"eCRM Software and Solutions." <> Accessed: 10 Oct 2000.

Website of the above mentioned Exchange Applications, Inc. I wish I could write like these people -- pages and pages of positive, motivational text describing their services and I still have no idea how it works.

Week 9: Change and Technology


Schwarzwalder, Robert. "Building the sci/tech digital library, part 3: adding electronic services." _Database_. (Oct-Nov, 1997): p65-68.

Discusses how the transfer of information has largely moved from the paper-to-electronic to the electronic-to-electronic stage in which information is already in some kind of digital form but must be translated to a different format. Discusses the difficulties of allowing CD-ROM access from online and gives some library web addresses.

Lemley, Mark A. "Introduction: The Constitutionalization of Technology Law." _Berkley Technology Law Journal_. (Spring 2000): p529.

The issues discussed here will become more pertinent as libraries move online. It notes that legislation is often motivated by money and the interests of property rights owners, but these laws are often at odds with free speech and public access of information.

Goldsborough, Reid. "Awesome, awful, or indifferent? (Internet philosophy)." _Reading Today_. (August 2000): 17

A fun article on the variety of different views/philosophies regarding the Internet, including cyberlibertarianism (free speech and unrestricted access to information), cyberutopianism (bringing people together across previous social boundries leading to a new global holism), neo-Luddism (detests the new technology), technorealism (it's just a tool, another source of information), technohedonism (it's the ultimate source of instant entertaiment), cyberfemminism (women were once a minority among surfers, but no longer), cyberunionism (uniting workers), cyberanthropology (study of new interactions between disembodied communicating entities), and technoblatherism (considers the above a bunch of hot air and dillusion).


Van der Leun, Gerard. "Gerard Van der Leun on Technoblatherism." <> Accessed: 17 Oct 2000.

A scathing, "blathering," somewhat surreal look at modern society, life, and technology. An interesting read in any case.

"[No Title]" <> Accessed: 31 Oct 2000.

As it says on their home page: " is a non-commercial web resource dedicated to the anthropological study of cyberspace. It includes several searchable databases to find courses or activities of interest to you." Also has a small e-library in PDF format.

Chin, Andrew. "Making the World Wide Web Safe for Democracy." <> Accessed: 31 Oct 2000.

This article is long and dry in spots, but the issues it discusses are quite interesting. It notes that not everyone gets the same amount of traffic on the web. Minorities often have links to larger, majority pages, but those links are very rarely returned. The author's premise seems to be that, in order to have free speech, someone must be listening -- a premise I'm not sure I agree with. In order to promote a more democratic Internet enviornment, the author proposes a few government actions: free search engines, a free link exchange (in a way, quite similar to the current banner advertisments), must-carry rules (large sites would be forced to have links, probably through the link exchange, to other smaller sites), and content-based regulation, which would restrict access to sites whose message restricts the speech of others.

Week 10: Directing, Policies, and Boards


Rogers, Michael. "CA Survey: 28% of PL's use filters." Library Journal. (1 May 2000): 20.

A rather short article reportings that 28% of Californian public libraries filter their Internet service, up from 15% in 1998 (though that number was from a national study). About half of those libraries only had filters on those Internet stations in the children's department. More than half of the studies libraries require a form signed by a parent before allowing a child to access the Internet. Is that a good idea?

Margolin, Victor. "The Enforcers: monitoring use of library slides." Print. (July-Aug 97): 14.

A satirical article on how many "enforcers" a library would need to ensure its "public display of archived slides" policy was enforced. It brings up a good point: should you even have a policy if you can't enforce it?

Glick, Andrea. "Virginia library gears up to fight filter suit." School Library Journal. (Feb 1998): 16.

Virginia's Loudoun County Public Library is being sued by a group claiming that they are infringing First Ammendment rights. The library claims it has the right to choose what materials are available in the library.


"Library Policies." <> Accessed: 3 Dec 2000.

Englewood, Colorado, library's policies. Their internet policy requires patrons to have SmartCards identifying their allowed level of Internet use. Children must have written permission from parents to access the internet. An amusing quote from their page: "The Library cannot control the content of the Internet and cannot be held responsible for tis [sic] accuracy." Other policies available involve use of SmartCard and the circulation policy.

"Library Policy." <> Accessed: 3 Dec 2000.

A rather strange policy really. Seems like a combination policy, description, and mission statement for London's Bishop Douglass RC High School library. States that the library is not to be "a social venue." While this may be a good idea at the school level, is this a viewpoint adopted by most libraries? Is this view a good one?

"Library Policy." <> Accessed: 3 Dec 2000.

To complete the cross-section view of different libraries, this is an academic library policy from Tarleton State University, located in central Texas. Based on their policy, this library appears to be run by the Texan Gestapo. I was pleasantly surpised to note that they do not yet demand body cavity searches of all their patrons. Seriously though, I wouldn't want to spend much time in this library if they actually act in strict accordance to this policy -- bag searches, mandatory display of ID, lost items go to the police station, etc.

Week 11: Staffing

Alexander, Steve. "Escaping staffing fallout: rapid-growth hiring can wreak havoc on schedules, deadlines, and employee retention." InfoWorld. (23 Oct 2000): 47.

The massive growth in the IT industry has meant it is hard to find new employees fast enough. Besides dealing with the great quantity of resumes and paperwork inherent in the interviewing process for each position, there is often a lack of qualified applicants. A way around this is to hire junior professionals and pairing them with more experienced workers, but this can slow down projects and lead to employee unrest.

Watkins, Carolyn. "Student groups solve staffing woes at BU." Food Management. (Sept 2000): 26.

This is a good example of creative staffing. At Brown University, it was often hard to find individual students willing to work at the cafeteria on weekends. Solution: open up positions to student and community groups on a rotating basis. Besides being able to put their earnings towards their cause, the groups are allowed to put up signs at the counters or wear shirts advertising their cause. The program is successful enough to have a nearly a semester-long waiting list to work weekend shifts.

Alexander, Steve. "Contracting online." InfoWorld. (10 July 2000): 67.

Discusses digital exchanges as a new way for IT contractors (and others) to find work. Some are free, and some charge, but either employers or contractors can post information through the service. As an alternative to traditional staffing agencies, it has some advantages, such as being very global. Disadvantages are that most companies don't trust exchanges as much as local agencies and that often contractors and employers never meet face-to-face, which can lead to problems during a project.


"IQ4hire - Site Tour - Case Study." < Accessed: 31 Oct 2000.

A page from the website that describes the process of finding a contractor to complete your project. IQ4hire stays very involved with the whole project, with professional reviewers checking that the buyer and the seller really know what they're talking about and agree about the specifications of the work.

" | Welcome." <> Accessed: 2 Dec 2000.

Weclome page of, another IT contracting marketplace. An interesting and exciting site loaded with job options in the new IT field. Categories include: "Creating/Media," "Information Technology," "Marketing, Ads, & Sales," "Training & Advice," "Web Development," and more.

"Xchange Home Page." <> Accessed: 2 Dec 2000.

Also mentioned in the "Contracting online" articles above, this online marketplace covers more than just information technology.